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Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New OrleansLouisianaUnited Statesin the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expressionand in African-American music traditions. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles.

New Orleans jazz began in the early s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrillesbiguineragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship bandsKansas City jazza hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and gypsy jazz a style that emphasized musette waltzes were the prominent styles.

Bebop emerged in the s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music" which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines. The mids saw the emergence of hard bopwhich introduced influences from rhythm and bluesgospeland blues, especially in the saxophone dissertation uk hotel industry piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late s, using the modeor musical scale, as the basis of henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship structure and improvisation, as did free jazzwhich explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures.

Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late s and early s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music 's rhythms, electric instruments, and highly amplified stage sound. In the early s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Other styles and genres abound in the s, such as Latin and Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasma slang term dating back to meaning "pep, energy". The use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as in the Chicago Daily Tribune. It wasn't called that.

It was spelled 'J-A-S-S'. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say advanced essay writing harvard in front of ladies. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over years, from ragtime to the rock -infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music. But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, [12] defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation essay of artificial intelligence the Negro with European music" [13] and arguing that it differs from Henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as 'swing ' ".

Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship contains a "sonority and manner thesis book nutrition phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz essay about social studies been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities".

Duke Ellingtonone of essay about book lovers most famous figures, said, "It's all music. Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as bluesa form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations. These work songs were commonly structured around henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also improvisational. Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity chegg homework help discount essays revenge the musical scorewith less attention henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship to interpretation, ornamentation, and accompaniment.

The classical performer's goal is to play the buy a term paper online as it was written. In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, placing less value on the contribution of the composer, if thesis formatting style is one, and more on the performer. Depending on the performer's mood, experience, and interaction with band members or audience members, the performer may change melodies, harmonies, and time signatures.

In early Dixielanda. New Orleans jazz, performers took turns playing melodies and improvising countermelodies. In the swing era of the s—'40s, big bands relied more on arrangements which were written or learned henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship ear and memorized. Soloists henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship within these arrangements. In the bebop era of the s, big bands gave way to small groups and minimal arrangements in which the melody was stated briefly at the beginning and most of the piece was improvised. Modal jazz abandoned chord progressions coursework cover sheet mmu allow essay on goals to improvise even more.

In many forms of jazz, a soloist is supported by a rhythm section of one or more chordal instruments piano, guitardouble bass, and drums. The rhythm section plays chords and rhythms that outline the henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship structure and complement the soloist. Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized. According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form".

An alternative henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles. For some African Americans, jazz has drawn attention to African-American contributions to culture and history. For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions". Papa Jack Lainewho ran henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship Hipaa history essay band in New Orleans in the s, was called "the father of white jazz". Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the s.

These musicians helped change attitudes toward race in the U. Female jazz performers and henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship have contributed to jazz throughout its history. Women began playing instruments in jazz in the early s, drawing particular recognition on piano. When male jazz musicians were drafted during World War II, many all-female bands replaced them. Women were members of the big bands of Woody Herman and Gerald Wilson. Beginning in the s, many women jazz instrumentalists were prominent, some sustaining long careers. Some of the most distinctive improvisers, composers, and bandleaders in jazz have been women. Jazz originated in the lateth to earlyth century as interpretations of American and European classical music entwined with African and slave folk songs and the influences of West African culture.

By the 18th century, slaves in the New Orleans area gathered socially at a henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship market, in an area which later became known as Congo Henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship, famous for its African dances. Bythe Atlantic slave trade had brought nearlyAfricans to North America. An account says that they were making strange music Creole on an equally strange variety of 'instruments'—washboards, washtubs, jugs, boxes beaten with sticks or bones and a drum henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship by stretching skin over a flour-barrel.

Robert Palmer said of percussive slave music:. Usually such music was associated with annual festivals, when the year's crop was harvested and several days were set aside for celebration. As abstract example lab report asa traveler in North Buying essay papers saw dancers dressed in costumes that included horned headdresses and cow tails and heard music provided by a sheepskin-covered "gumbo box", apparently a frame drum; triangles and jawbones furnished the auxiliary percussion.

There are quite a few [accounts] from the southeastern states and Louisiana dating from the period — Some of the earliest [Mississippi] Delta settlers came from the vicinity of New Orleans, where drumming was never actively discouraged for very long and homemade drums were used to accompany public dancing until the outbreak of the Civil War. Another influence came from the harmonic style of hymns of the church, which black slaves had learned and incorporated into their own music as spirituals. However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, whereas the spirituals are homophonicrural blues and henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship jazz "was largely based on concepts of heterophony.

During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. Henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized the music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment.

In the mids the white New Orleans composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted slave rhythms and melodies from Cuba and other Caribbean islands into piano salon music. The Black Codes outlawed drumming by slaves, which meant that African drumming traditions were henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship preserved in North America, unlike in Cuba, Haiti, and elsewhere henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship the Homework service online. African-based rhythmic patterns were retained in the United States in large part through "body rhythms" such as stomping, clapping, and patting juba dancing. In the opinion of jazz historian Ernest Bornemanwhat preceded New Orleans jazz before was henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship music", similar to what was played in the Caribbean at the time.

Tresillo shown below is the most basic and most prevalent duple-pulse rhythmic cell in sub-Saharan African music traditions and the music of the African Diaspora. Tresillo is heard prominently in New Henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship second line music and in other forms of popular music from that city from the turn of the 20th century to present.

In the post-Civil Great speech writing period afterAfrican Americans were able to obtain surplus military bass drums, snare drums and fifes, and an original African-American drum and fife music emerged, featuring tresillo and related syncopated rhythmic figures. African-American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 19th century when the habanera Cuban contradanza gained international popularity.

John Storm Roberts states that the musical genre habanera "reached the U. Habaneras were widely available as sheet music and were the first written music which was rhythmically based on an African motif New Orleans native Louis Moreau Gottschalk 's piano piece "Ojos Criollos Danse Cubaine " was influenced by the composer's studies henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship Cuba: the habanera rhythm is clearly heard in the left hand.

Jelly Roll Morton called the rhythmic figure the Spanish tinge and considered it an essential ingredient of jazz. The abolition of slavery in led to new opportunities for the education of freed African Americans. Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in entertainment. Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel showsand in vaudevilleduring which time many marching bands were formed.

Black pianists played in bars, clubs, and brothels, as ragtime developed. Ragtime appeared as sheet music, popularized by African-American musicians such as the entertainer Ernest Hoganwhose hit songs appeared in Essay transition words phrases years later, Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship as a banjo solo known as "Rag Time Medley". Classically trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship Original Rags " in and, inhad an international hit with " Maple Henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship Rag ", a multi- strain ragtime march with four parts that feature recurring themes and a bass line with copious seventh chords.

Its henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship was the basis for many other rags, and the syncopations in the right hand, especially in the transition between the first and second strain, were novel at the time. African-based rhythmic patterns such as tresillo and its variants, the habanera rhythm and cinquilloare heard in the ragtime compositions of Joplin and Turpin. Joplin's "Solace" is generally considered to be in the habanera genre: [64] best masters essay editing site both of the pianist's hands play in a syncopated fashion, completely abandoning any sense of a march rhythm.

Blues henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship the name given to both a musical form and a music genre, [68] which originated in African-American communities of primarily the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th how to write a summery from henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship spiritualswork songsfield hollersshouts and chants and top 10 work from home websites simple narrative ballads.

The African use of pentatonic scales contributed to the development custom polymer essay blue notes in blues and jazz. Many of the rural blues of the Deep Henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship are stylistically an extension and merger of basically henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship broad accompanied song-style traditions in the west central Sudanic belt:. Handy became interested in folk blues of the Deep South while traveling through the Mississippi Delta. In this folk blues form, the singer would improvise freely within a limited melodic range, sounding like a field holler, and the guitar accompaniment was slapped rather than strummed, like a parts to essay writing drum which responded in syncopated accents, apa reference page pdf as another "voice".

The primitive southern Negro, as he sang, was henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship to bear down on the third and seventh tone of the scale, slurring between major and minor. Whether in the cotton field of the Delta or on the Levee up St. Louis way, it was always the same. Till then, however, I had never heard this dissertation research question/hypothesis used by a more sophisticated Negro, or by any white man.

University of michigan dissertation microfilm tried to convey this effect The publication of essay journey spm " Memphis Blues " sheet music in introduced henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship bar blues to the world although Gunther Schuller argues that it is not really a blues, but "more like a cakewalk" [74].

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